Binary Options Graphic Trend Analysis

Seeking advice on ordinal regression for psych

Hello, bit long, sorry. Tried my luck on the askstats sub but didn’t get a response so I’m hoping people here might have some ideas as this is psych-related.
I’m trying to fit an ordinal mixed effects model with a categorical predictor and random intercepts for participants. The outcome variable is a 3-level ordinal scale: less/same/more.
My ordinal model seemed to fit well, but then I checked the assumption of proportional odds (PO) and found that it was violated (to do this I ran a Likelihood ratio test comparing the full model vs partial PO model and the latter was a better fit). Most items were rated as either ‘less’ or ‘more’ instead of ‘same’, so it might be that the slope residuals were inconsistent. My understanding is that having a very large sample size (as I do) also increases the likelihood that PO is not met (?), but not sure. Now I have a few options:
1) Keep the original model: it seems to do a good job capturing overall trends in the data (Omeans) based on what was expected from graphical analysis. Not intending to use for prediction, mostly just coefficient estimates. I came across some discussion and examples of this happening before, and I also don’t know if the PO assumption might be more flexible for mixed models. Very little info about this.
2) Partial PO model: The partial model above didn’t converge so I can’t even be sure how accurate the comparison test was, but this is theoretically ‘better fitting’ if PO is violated. It has too many parameters to accurately estimate some of the coefficients (returns NaN standard errors) and only has less/same and same/more estimates, which is not very helpful.
3) Mixed effects binary model: I could dichotomize the outcome by collapsing less/same into one category (0) vs more (1) or only compare less/more, but I’m not comfortable with the loss of information here.
4) Treat the 1-3 scale as numeric and run as log-linear. This is frequently done in other fields but not very good practice.
5) Mixed effects multinomial model: A more flexible version of (1) where the categories are not treated as ordered. Possibly the most ‘correct’ but imo vastly overcomplicated.
Not really sure where to go from here. I’ve read just about everything I could find on PO in ordinal mixed models but it seems to be mostly questions with no answers. Any thoughts on the above, whether (1) is too severe a violation, or anything really would be appreciated.
submitted by username362519 to AcademicPsychology [link] [comments]

Sex & The Failed Absolute — Reading Group "Introduction"

The Introduction To Sex & The Failed Absolute:
Primer, Introduction, Theorem 1 (part 1), Theorem 1 (Part 2), Corollary 1, Scholium 1.1/2/3, Theorem II (Part 1), Theorem II (Part 2), Theorem II (Parts 3 & 4), Corollary 2, Scholium 2.1/2/3/4, Judgment Derp, Theorem III (Part’s 1,2,3), Theorem III (Part’s 4,5,6), Corollary 3, Scholium 3, Theorem IV, Corollary 4:, Scholium 4, End of Reading Groups Synopsis
This post/reading group is really for those who have read the chapters already, or will do so as we go along. If you haven't, here it is, please try and read it before asking questions.
This is a long post (almost as long as the actual intro), but I wanted to ‘re-write’ the introduction of the book to see if I could make it clearer for less experienced readers, using my own simplified readings and additions as examples, so feel free to critique and add your own.
Žižek goes at it from the start: we have to think about sex, which he posits is “perhaps the most radical act of them all.”
His central criticism, and which he returns to at the end of the intro is:
1) When religion or any other belief in the absolute (anything that is ‘greater’ than our own private individual needs) fails, a profound sense of disconnection (alienation) follows and so the world goes for hedonism as an attempt to ‘reconnect’ through enjoyment. This goes with his often repeated criticism of the modern superego injunction to “Enjoy!”, and we feel this everyday: “Enjoy your family”, “Enjoy your time off”, “Enjoy reddit”, and a particular gripe of his “Don’t hold back on your feelings, get rid of your prohibitions and express how you really feel regardless of considerations for the civility of human relationships!” Arguably, even the injunction to “enjoy philosophy” is there, but philosophy is hard work and people don’t want to work, they want simple explanations and user friendly memes (Ouch – sorry, couldn’t resist it). Watch this video on creating a space for permission not to enjoy and note that he is not saying we must not enjoy, but we need to be able to not enjoy in important areas of life. This begs the question “What would it look like when religion is successful?” — permission not to enjoy? Active productivity towards a universal aim instead of seeking your own hedonistic/narcissistic pleasure?
This all has everything to do with sexuality, raised to the level of a new absolute — enjoy your eroticised identity of who you “really are” and find you perfect partner who will “complete” you so you can feel good, (find your reddit identity so other’s will love/admire you). “If only we could allow each other to be who we “really are”, all the problems in the world will be solved”. Žižek’s response is no!, you must censor yourself for the sake of human relationships. Why connect it with sexuality? Because, in my very simplistic reading, if we go with evolution, the whole shebang is geared towards the reproduction of the species. That’s teleological I know, so it would be more accurate to say “sex was the answer to the problem of death”. However, we represent a break from nature (arguably we are a symptom of a break in nature itself), in that, unlike animals, we have no instincts, and so all the energy that was geared towards reproduction doesn’t know what its supposed to do (“The falcon cannot hear the falconer” etc.). So sex/enjoyment (as an ideological category), without a ‘higher purpose’ (God etc.), becomes its own tautological end – enjoy for the sake of enjoyment.
2) “Because of the inconsistent nature of sexuality, its elevation into the new Absolute necessarily fails.” In example he isolates the problem of defining the universal category of “Woman” (not individual women). Philosophically it can’t be solved through new post-patriarchal definition (basically, because the position of the non-All will always escape an “All” encompassing identity), nor through the elevation of woman into an entity which resists symbolization, as this invites mythos and mysticism —think about how, without sexual instincts, sexualised energy without direction is free to roam where it likes, guided by the matrix of culture and capitalism — look at these Images and tell me you don’t see sex redirected towards ice-cream. In other words, the mystery of religious ecstasy is now the mystery consumerist ecstasy.
However, and this is the crux of the entire book and should be clear from the offset, THE WHOLE THING FAILS ON ALL FRONTS: Yin/Yang, “masculine/feminine principles”, “Oneness” of/with Being, “Touching the face of God” in the female orgasm, and this very failure is constitutive of human sexuality — without it, there would be no sexuality — and therefore the entire edifice of culture is built on and around this antagonism.
Most of the book is built on various attempts to formalise this reflexive movement – how the “Oneness” of the absolute turns back on itself, recoils etc. The key figures that represents this reflexivity are unorientable surfaces on which the up/down, left/right, forward/backwards of standard cartesian space goes arse over tit (notice especially that depth is a function of Cartesian space). Cartesian space is a transcendental category of perception (it is the precondition for ‘reality’ as it appears to us and serves as a big Other). If you stand on a Möbius strip, you will perceive two surfaces (Finite/Infinite, Quality/Quantity, Good/Bad, Being/Thought, Conscious/Unconscious, Subject/Object, Male/Female, Epistemology/Ontology), each as a ‘mirror’ of the other, but in experiential life, you can never stand back in an “objective” position to see how it is all “the same”, but not the same as in One, but as in an impossibility of totality (a Cartesian perspective) and the ability to orientate yourself towards it in any meaningful way at all. But you can represent (re-present) the nature of the antagonism itself using these unorientable surfaces which render the continuous passage of a concept into its opposite (e.g. the subject passes to the object via the inscription of the objet a — a kind of informed version of Fichte’s identity of subject and object).
The naïve notion of an “eternal struggle of opposites” cuts the Möbius strip and flattens it out creating the notion of an end point, and this marks much of dialectical materialism (and philosophy and spirituality for two thousand years). Think of the crude thesis, antithesis, and synthesis as yet another attempt at a ‘final resolution’ between ‘opposites’ i.e. the absolute as a final “One” that resolves this tension. He does lay out Stalin’s dialectical materialism as a new version of general ontology, which is different form the simple reading I gave above (see my comment below that outlines it), but dialectical materialism as Žižek defines it, is concerned with “such a convoluted space, and that it is this convolution, this self-relating circular movement of falling-back-into-oneself,”, in other words, repetition without final resolution, only historically contingent resolution until the conditions shift once again, e.g. each era develops a new ideological “universal” as a master signifier (“Evolution”, ”Scientism”, “Capitalism”, “Democracy” etc.) and declares it as the end of history, until everyone wakes up in the morning with a hangover wondering why the night before went so wrong.
He is careful to point out the negative history of the term DM, and then briefly dissociates this version from it, calling on the majority of science already for whom “reality is a dynamic process permanently in motion, a process in the course of which gradual contingent change culminates in sudden reversals and explosions of something new, etc.” and I think it is true, that the very best scientists stay at the experimental level, avoiding final conclusions and dubious notions of truth (e.g. Richard Feynman was big on accusing science of making unwarranted claims based on effectively master signifiers – “energy” for instance, as explaining everything when no one can say what energy actually is. Today’s version might be “information”).
To exemplify the difference further, he resurrects one of my favourites from way back in The Parallax View. In brief, if you close one eye, put your finger in front of your face and focus on it, then alternate between closing one eye, then the other back and forth, the relative position of the background shifts. Conventional scientism and DM1 thinks of the background as the truth, and all we have to do is remove the finger and open both eyes. DM2 says that the finger is inscribed into the object. Think of the finger as the (hidden) void of the subject transposed into the objet a, every time it shifts, so does the object in the background, and the two are literally (as in the letter of the real) inseparable. Any notion of the way things “actually are” disintegrates. But this also happens with the self-identity of the object — we desire it to be self-identical. I may not desire a watch lets say, but I desire it to be a distinct singular self-identical ‘thing’, but by naming it a watch, I have already inscribed into it one particular function as a unary trait. There is no consistent ‘watch’ in the real (in extremis, if you took the perspective of a neutrino, there are no ‘things’ at all).
To say that the object and the subject are inherently mediated is effectively to say they are mutually constitutive in the sense that one inevitably intervenes into the other — they are the “two” sides of the Möbius strip. In other words, when the perspective shifts, the actual ontological status of the object shifts in reality. Don’t forget, for Žižek, ontology falls on the side of language/the symbolic order. Think about how a kid hates the taste of beer, but because they want to be like the adults, they keep on plugging away at it until one day they actually do like it. There is no ‘objective’ reading of beer (that’s not to say there aren’t ‘dumb’ facts), nor is it entirely subjective and relative, the subject and the object are mediated and so as the subject’s perspectival point of experience shifts, so does the actual ontological status of the beer. There is the truth of the subject and in this way we can have two truths that contradict. Another example is how the epistemological frames of physics and biology see their object differently. A rose is alive for biology, it is ‘dead’ matter in physics. Its status shifts depending on the glasses you wear. This is the meaning of the glasses in the film They Live. Taking the glasses off is just a metaphor, all you can do is shift between one pair and another, between the glasses of physics and biology, or between the glasses of Capitalism and Marxism. If you like, one perspective objects to the other, and this is more what objectivity really is – exposing the truth of contradictions. After Kant and Hegel, there is no going back, no pretending you can take the glasses off, without them we would be exposed to the real and deadly jouissance.
So, when you think of the great debate of evolution, Žižek’s point is that there is nothing inherently wrong with the theory, only when you apply it as an absolute. Wearing glasses through which we see the world in evolutionary terms, results in us seeing reality in its Ontic ‘totality’ as an evolutionary process, HOWEVER, today’s cognitive sciences and evolutionary biology cannot account for the fact that in imagining a world prior to putting those glasses on, we still (inadvertently) look through the same glasses in positing the world as an object of scientific explanation. Apropos of this problem of putting on the glasses and not realising you’re wearing them, with the ‘objective’ scientific glasses, even when you imagine a time before putting them on, you’re still wearing them, because the very notion of a “time before” arises from the notion of time as objective (think of Meillassoux’s "ancestral" realm. It’s a bit like asking what happened before the big bang, it’s a nonsensical question.
In other words, these scientific views cannot account for their putting on of the glasses and prior to putting them on, the ontological state of the world is unspeakable (the Real). Likewise, our own transcendental-ontological glasses cannot explain the fact of external reality as an object of successful experimentation etc., all it sees are the conditions of possibility, without saying anything about real ‘dumb’ stupid material processes. “The scientific view of reality thus cannot really account for its own emergence—but, similarly, the transcendental-ontological approach cannot explain the fact of contingent external reality, so the gap between the two is irreducible.”
The only route to take is German Idealism. Using a metaphor from Hitchcock’s vertigo (which I will avoid), effectively Žižek is saying that when the transcendental turn (Kant to Hegel) happened, a pair of glasses were put on that saw that we were stuck with putting on glasses (the transcendental conditions of possibility) and can never take them off. The mistake of post-Hegelian development were moves like vulgar positivism etc., that claims all we can ever trust is empirical data in a naïve attempt to return to reality (as empirical ontology). Heidegger saw Hölderlin as the exception to this trend in declaring all we can do is tell ourselves stories about things instead, recognising they are stories (hence the danger of mythologizing woman as representative of the Real).
For us, on the contrary, all four great German idealists—Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel—articulated this distance, i.e., they struggled with how to break out of the horizon of absolute subjectivity without regressing to pre-transcendental realism.
So after all that, what the fuck is materialism in “dialectical materialism”?. Right then, here we go. For me, the best way to see the problem of matter is, of all people, Noam Chomsky “any property can be considered material, if one defines matter such that it has that property”, meaning we don’t know what matter is, if we go looking for empirical qualities it doesn’t take us anywhere. Žižek’s answer is we need to think of materialism without matter “a purely formal materialism of waves, quanta, or whatever, which move in a dematerialized space.” In other words, we have to stop the idea that if we look deep enough, we will find the dirty truth of matter behind appearances, rather the truth lies in the collapse of appearances, the collapse of consistency. The answer is to look at the formal nature of appearances, the presentation of forms, how forms arise. As I said in the primer — reality itself is incomplete, like a computer game when you take the camera places you’re not supposed to go, you find an abyss behind appearances, a failure (e.g. on the quantum level in physics). So, it is not just that, due to subjective limitations, a human subject can never fully grasp reality in itself (very roughly speaking, the Kantian position). This epistemological limitation is possible only on the basis that reality, ontologically or in itself, is incomplete (very roughly, what Žižek does with the Hegelian move after Kant
True materialism always implies such a “disappearance” of matter in a network of formal relations.
and
So why call this materialism? Because (and here the notion of unorientables enters) this movement of “abstract” immaterial should be conceived as totally contingent, aleatoric, inorganic, purposeless, and in this sense non-spiritual.
In other words, there are no Laws here, no Big Other that tells what we think of as matter, what it is or what it is supposed to do, it is random chance that seems to make things happen sometimes, and not happen another, not a predetermined set of causes. Which means evolution is pure chance, and has nothing to do with inevitability and progress etc.
Materialism should be totally deprived of any sense of evolution, organic development, progressive orientation—the worst idealism is the one masked as evolutionary materialism, a vision of reality as an organic whole which gradually develops itself into more and more complex forms.
Why is this politically relevant? because the dominant ideological stance is of progress — the world is slowly becoming a safer place, we are becoming more and more civilised etc. That is what happens when you cut the Möbius strip and lay it out flat – the idea of progress towards the absolute at the end of the strip (peace on earth, food for all, even transhumanism etc.). But like the peace before the storm, Žižek insists that true dialectical analysis demands that we look for the turn on the loop that will “cut short the continuity of progress” (the light at the end of the tunnel is a train heading towards us). The whole point of fore fronting unorientables is that they are all surface, all appearances that twist and suddenly turn, any notion of depth is an effect of their convoluted space (that there is an ‘Other’ side where truth resides, for Žižek, truth is in the twist).
So, the book is an elaboration of the basic structures of unorientables broken down into four parts, each containing:
A Theorem (a philosophical thesis)
A Corollary - a proposition that follows from the thesis and brings out its consequences.
A series of scholia, explanatory comments which apply the basic thesis to a singular (and sometimes contingent) topic.
Wash, rinse and repeat:
Theorem I is a layout of the state of ontology now – all the ‘new’ ontologies, from Deleuzian vitality to Badiou’s multiplicity of being and Object Orientated Ontology, all of which are a panic response to the endless self-reflexive probing of deconstructivism and an attempt to return to a “positive vision of what reality is”. Meanwhile, he and Alenka Zupančič and others (I am glad he mentions her because she is crucial to his project and doesn’t get enough credit), hit them hard with the failure of each and every of these ontologies that “echoes the thwarted character of reality itself”. To put it in other terms, they all take the position of the master and need dethroning as quickly and precisely as possible. The section leaves open the question “Can we step behind this gap, to a more primordial dimension?”
Theorem II is the key moment of the book as it basically says yes: “one can step behind the parallax gap by way of redoubling it, by way of transposing it into the thing itself, and the terrain in which this redoubling takes place for us, humans, is that of sexuality—sexuality as our privileged contact with the Absolute.” Sexuality is basically a force of negativity that fucks everything up and it is this disruption of ‘orientable’ binaries (male/female etc.), reducing them to the “pure” difference of two apparent sides of the Möbius strip, that are in fact the same side that falls back into itself. He delves into Kant’s antinomies of pure reason and the dynamic and mathematical sublime. I would read [this piece by Joan Copjec] (https://b-ok.cc/book/685001/ceec86) if I were you (from pg.94 to 119), it was a seminal moment when Copjec connected Kant’s antinomies with Lacan’s formulas of sexuation and will help clarify Žižek’s less successful attempts at it.
Theorem III is getting really hardcore. He equates three unorientables with the triad of Hegel’s logic.
Möbius strip = the continuous passage of a concept into its opposite (being passes into nothingness, quantity into quality, etc.).
cross-cap = a cut into this continuity, and this cut makes the relationship between the two opposites that of reflection: with the cross-cap, pure difference enters the stage, the difference between appearance and essence, a thing and its properties, cause and its effects, etc.
Klein bottle = subjectivity enters: in it, the circle of reflexivity is brought to the Absolute, the cause becomes nothing but an effect of its effects, etc. (that’s why the Klein bottle cannot be rendered in three dimensional space).
Its worth fucking around on YouTube etc for videos about these shapes, how the cross-cap and the Klein bottle are derivations of the Möbius strip (e.g. here, here and some images here). Bear in mind that the Klein bottle cannot be represented properly in 3 dimensional space without introducing intersections that are not there, so imagine trying to run your finger over the surfaces and so how you return to the origin. This video of imaginary numbers fucks with my head in that if you extend the graphic (at about 2 min.50 secs in), it looks like it will become an unorientable surface if it keeps on going.
Theorem IV returns to the main theme “that of the persistence of abstraction (of radical negativity which cannot be “sublated” into a subordinated moment of concrete totality). We shouldn’t pass too quickly over these terms “concrete” and “abstraction”. Any Hegelians please chip in. They appear like binaries of representation and non-representation respectively, but are in fact two sides of the Möbius strip. To talk of “the population” is to evoke a concrete totality (of a nation, state etc.), but in doing so it creates a false impression of a whole (“The British population have spoken”), whereas it is in fact an abstraction as class division is omitted (only a portion have spoken, and those ‘portions’ themselves are internally divided). To talk of matter is to talk of a concentration of many determinations (as predicates) as if together they constitute a substantial thing called matter, whereas in fact inconsistency and the insubstantial are omitted. To talk of sex is to create a false impression of a universal totality (the human species is constituted of male and female), but sex turns out to be an abstraction inasmuch as it leaves out the non-relation. Each of these abstractions (the abstracted elements as non-representational e.g. “Woman”) are each a form of ‘excess’, and are the grounding of the concrete. He will explore how this is the same for reason, its ground is the excess of madness; the ethics of community is grounded in the excess of war; “stable relationships” are grounded in the excess of deadly sexual passion. He accuses of assemblage theory, or any other realist ontology, of not taking into account this negativity and its irreducible dimension of subjectivity.
Before confronting the basic ontological question that he mentioned before, that is to say, by redoubling the parallax gap, he wants to describe the gap, the “crack in the positive order of being, and of the way this crack is supplemented by the transcendental dimension” — I assume how fantasy arises. Then:
1), dealing with the actual move of redoubling the crack as our sole contact with the absolute and in the process explaining, with reference to Kant’s antinomies, why—for us, humans— the primordial form of this contact is sexual experience as an experience of failure.
2) Outlining the topological structures of the redoubling of the crack via progression from the Möbius strip, to the cross-cap and finally the Klein bottle.
3) Finally “the notion of inhuman subject which fits the impersonal assemblage of things and processes.”
Each of these will have their corollaries and then scholia mentioned before, which I won’t bother to list. You can read them on pg.10 onwards (the pdf has no pg. numbers, so it starts with “Each of the theorems is followed by a corollary”). But the very nice touch at the end is the statement:
A careful reader will notice how the structure of each of the book’s four parts echoes, reproduces even, the basic ontological matrix promoted by the book: a theorem stands for the universal genus, a universal axiom; its corollary stands for its species (following Hegel’s claim that, ultimately, every genus has only one species); this one species is in antagonism with its genus, there is imbalance between the genus and its species because there is no second species that would complement the first one so that the two would form a balanced Whole. This lack of the second species is then filled in by the multiplicity of contingent scholia.
He talks briefly about, effectively, how his project fails to produce a ‘positive-realist vision of the universe’, nor a positive idea that can be the centre of an act of emancipation, which is, actually, the mark of its success “this thwarted identity is my vision of the Real, it is the basic condition of our lives.” This is really a statement from the feminine position of the non-all, one which Zupančič somewhere recommends as preferable to the masculine option of attempting an all-encompassing totalising theory that can be turned into a master’s discourse.
Finally, and here’s his red flag: in our times, “the true enemy of the present book” is not competing theories (realist ontologies), but that our lives are centred around fifteen seconds of jouissance (that scrolling through reddit is – and so I doubt that more than a few have read this far). He centres on an idea that seemed to have come originally from this guy, namely Word Art —the kind of crap on McDonald’s walls with a picture and ‘words of wisdom’ that are a short-circuit to enjoyment, which takes us back to the beginning of the introduction: Enjoyment, enjoyment, en-fucking-joyment. Thinking is not enjoying, because thinking involves confronting antagonisms. Memes are much easier to deal with, right?
submitted by wrapped_in_clingfilm to zizek [link] [comments]

Master List Of Left-Wing Youtube AND Podcast Channels - REVISED

Master List Of Left-Wing Youtube AND Podcast Channels

***NOTE: after a discussion with the mods I’ve taken out the original note here. Suffice to say the reason I put together this revised list was to add a number of channels I felt had been unfairly excluded. I’ve taken out a few controversial channels to comply with the mods request that i do so, as well as link to OP at his request. I thank the mods for allowing me to keep the rest of the channels I’ve added to the list.
Newly Added channels not on OP:
Tovarich Endymion, BrendanMccooney, Red Star Video, Claudia Brown, SJW101, azureScapegoat, Benji Adam Wiskettes, DemocraticSocialist01, Comrade Hakim, FinnishBolshevik, Bat’ko The Manarchist, ProSocialism, Flea Market Socialist, KnowingBetter, and a few others!
As a socialist I don't believe masterlists should constitute any kind of intellectual property that should be protected, especially in context of a masterlist that is being shared to spread awareness of leftist channels shared with the leftist community. I believe the channels I added deserve recognition. I don’t mind sharing editing with the community — let me know what you’d like to add and I’ll try my best to accommodate within the word limit here. I’ve had to take out a few of the film related channels to make room for more directly politically related podcasts.
I included the Podcast section in post and just removed the NEWS section of the original post, so that can be found in the OP (link in title). Also please note that to accommodate more podcasts and other more directly related leftist channels, I’ve had to remove some more film focused channels. Those can be found on the OP. Thanks comrades.
---------- please give these channels as much help as you can by subscribing and watching their content. We need these things to expand as much as possible if we don't want to entirely lose YouTube to the far-right.

ContraPoints: Explains political and social justice issues in funny and accessible way, utilising atmospheric lighting, lavish sets and costumes and memorable characters to illustrate her points.
Recommended video: Does The Left Hate Free Speech?

Hbomberguy: Debunks and mocks the views of right-wing YouTube commentators. Combines silly sketch comedy with well-researched critiques. Also reviews media like TV and video games.
Recommended video: Soy Boys: A Measured Response

Shaun: Creates longform, extremely thorough and straightforward rebuttals of right-wing videos. His content is also very researched and relies on some very sly, dry humour. Has also begun making videos explaining left-wing positions on issues such as 'How Privatisation Fails: Railways'.
Recommended video: The Great Replacement Isn't Real ft. Lauren Southern

Innuendo Studios: Brought to my attention through the comments here. Has done some very interesting series of videos including 'Why Are You So Angry?', which analysed the mindset of the young men behind Gamergate.
Recommended videos: The Alt-Right Playbook: Introduction

Peter Coffin: Creates deep dives from a socialist perspective into topical political and social issues. Also does regular livestreams on these subjects with his wife Ashleigh.
Recommended video: What Jordan B. Peterson Is Doing

Philosophy Tube: Analyses current affairs through a philosophical lens and creates explainers on well-known and important moral and political philosophers and philosophical concepts.
Recommended video: The Philosophy of Antifa

Potholer54: A journalist and former geologist debunks climate change denial and other science myths ranging from that of right-wing YouTubers like Steven Crowder and Stefan Molyneux to major denier figures like Lord Christopher Monkton and Patrick Moore. Makes an enormous point of referencing scientific papers and consensus on these issues, but addresses these subjects in a very easy to understand way. Perhaps my favourite of all the YouTubers on this list.
Recomended video: Top 10 climate change myths
Three Arrows: Debunks inaccurate takes on history by the right wing. Uses a similar longform format to Shaun's videos, and is also very well-sourced with some of the mods of the Ask Historians subreddit acting as researchers.
Recommended video: Guns in the Third Reich - A Response to Ben Shapiro And Others

Anactualjoke: Refutes poor understandings and misrepresentations of Marxism from YouTubers like Sargon of Akkad and PragerU while defending socially liberal ideas like intersectionality.
Recommended video: The Youtube Red Scare: Episode 1 - Does Sargon Understand the left?

Benji Adam Whiskettes: Excellent marxist channel featuring videos on how Communism has improved womens rights, why the profit motive is not good, wealth gaps, and how capitalism has not created jobs. Noteworthy for video of Professor G.A. Cohen debunking the myth of incentive under capitalism
Recommended video: G.A. Cohen debunks the myth of incentive under Capitalism

Red Star Video: Featuring marxist film reviews, analysis of the origin of the alt right, reaction videos on political charts, history of the second international, cuban socialism, and an overview of different tendencies, Red Star is an overall great marxist channel. Noteworthy for video “Why The RIght Is Wrong On Free Speech” Recommended Video: Why The Right Is Wrong On “Free Speech”
Claudia Brown: Feminist and socialist channel featuring a variety of videos on a wide variety of subjects. Everything from Islam and Feminism to response videos, to women’s participation in the workplace, to examinations of the use of buzzwords. Noteworthy for unique perspectives on feminism and capitalism.
Recommended Video: Capitalism DOESNT enhance innovation
SJW 101 The Political Gamer: A channel that does effective leftist critique on a variety of issues, including on anti-feminism, the youtube right, the “skeptic” movement, Milo, Laci Green with wry wit and careful analysis.
Recommended video: Sargon, collectivism and the Skeptic Community
Brendan Mccooney: Hands down the most comprehensive channel on Marxian Economics. Covers topics like the law of value, overdeterminism, etc. in depth with well edited videos featuring videos, graphics. An absolute must for understanding economics, not too dry either.
Recommended Video: Law Of Value: Introduction
DemocraticSocialist01: With well edited, carefully argued videos on Hayek, Pinochet, Mao, Capitalisms Death Toll, Coach Red Pill, Brazil and Venezuela, this channel is excellent in debunking a lot of bad reactionary arguments while teaching quite a lot.
Recommended Video: Mao Did More Good Than Harm (Note: This video is mirrored, the video was taken down from his channel for some reason).
BadMouseProductions: Similarly primarily debunks bad understands of socialism from the right, but also does videos explaining socialist concepts and debunking bad right wing takes on other topics like climate change.
Recommended video: Argument ad Venezuelum (debunks the idea that Venezuela is a socialist country)
C0nc0rdance: Only uploads infrequently, but does very educated videos explaining scientific concepts such as gender and the genetics of ethnicity from a left-wing perspective. Also does videos addressing social topics from this same political viewpoint.
Recommended video: The Science of Human Races, Part 1
CreationistCat: The Mr. Plinkett of the YouTube Left. Using absurdist humour, bizarre editing and yet surprisingly great insight and research, the character of Creationist Cat (a magical housecat who was 'zapped through da internet' by God) mocks and exposes the bullshit of the right wing and online skeptic community.
Recommended video: MILO YIANNOPOULOS: EXPOSED!
Comrade Hakim: Noteworthy for a variety of videos discussing everything from the problem with worker co-ops, healthcare, how socialism gives a better quality of life, and one must watch video in particular on the subject of capitalism lifting people out of poverty. As an addendum to that video, I also recommend the Guardian Article “Aid In Reverse: How poor countries develop rich ones”
Recommended Video: Capitalism HASNT Lifted People Out Of Poverty
Cuck Philosophy: Explains topics in moral and political philosophy, does Marxist analyses of popular culture, but has perhaps best contributed to left-wing YouTube by doing long, in-depth deconstructions of the way figures like Jordan Peterson, Sam Harris and Steven Hicks misunderstand philosophy.
Recommended video: A Critique of Sam Harris' 'The Moral Landscape'
EssenceOfThought: Left-wing atheist channel that goes against what has become typically expected from the 'skeptic' community and actually critiques not only arguments from religious apologists, but also those who argue against non-binary gender, trans identities and other LGBT rights.
Recommended video: Jordan Peterson Lies About The Science On Same Gender Parenting
For Harriet: An intersectional black feminist channel which, aside from responding to current events pertaining to women's rights, takes a fairly uncompromising look at the perceived flaws in the movement to effectively analyse how it can be made better.
Recommended video: Candace Owens Is A Bad Actor
Tovarisch Endymion: An overall excellent marxist channel featuring videos on topics about Capitalism, how socialism HAS worked, replies to prager U and other reactionary channels, as well as a number of explainer videos. Noteworthy for video on an analysis of countries with deregulated market economies which feature atrocious wealth gaps.
Recommended Video: A Look at the Freest Markets In The World

Libertarian Socialist Rants: An anarchist who debunks bad capitalist arguments and anti-social liberalism views. Also does videos explaining anarchist principles and refuting common critiques of this ideology.
Recommended video: Anarchist Commentaries Episode 6: Paul Joseph Watson and the Dunning-Kruger Effect

RichardDWolff: The channel of well-known Marxist economist Prof. Richard D. Wolff. This channel is home to exclusive lectures where Professor Wolff explains current American and global economic problems and how Marxian economics can be both a prism to analyse how these problems effect people, and also be a solution to these systemic economic flaws. The channel Democracy At Work(which actually currently sits at 60k subscribers) features other lectures on the same subjects regarding contemporary failures of capitalism, and is based on a book of Wolff's with the same name.
Recommended video: Crisis and Openings: Introduction to Marxism - Richard D Wolff

The Messianic Manic: Another left-wing atheist channel. Does short but clever videos rebutting bad arguments from religious apologists and social conservatives.
Recommended video: Ben Shapiro Is Wrong About: Raising Children

Zero Books: A promotional channel for the Marxist literary publishing imprint of the same name. Uses the books available from their line as a starting point for videos exploring concepts in political and social philosophy and interpreting current political events and figures through a Marxist lens.
Recommended video: The Intellectual Dark Web Is Afraid Of Marx


AngieSpeaks: Produces anarchist critiques of current political events and explorations of anarchist/socialist history.
Recommended video: Conspiracy Culture: A Leftist Analysis

BlackGoat 666: Debunks online right-wing heroes like Ben Shapiro, Jordan Peterson and Christina Hoff-Sommers.
Recommended video: Jordan Peterson Is A Fraud. Part 1: Bill C-16

Eric Taxxon: Known for doing Hbomberguy's music, but between original music videos does left-wing response videos to people like Paul Joseph Watson.
Recommended video: The Kunst Saga | How The Right Wing Views Modern Art

In Otter Words: Hasn't uploaded in a year but hopefully will again soon since his output has been very underrated. Debunks bad right-wing criticisms of feminism and the trans rights movement. I'm shocked no bigger YouTubers have seized on his discovery that Ben Shapiro has been lying about the trans suicide rate.
Recommended video: Ben Shapiro and the Transgender Suicide Rate

José: Very similar to the style of Potholer54, but addressing similar subjects to channels like those like Hbomb, Shaun and Contra. He debunks right-wingers like Dave Rubin, Steven Crowder and Roaming Millennial with very eloquent, long-form responses.
Recommended video: Steven Crowder Is A Fraud | Change My Mind

Kristi Winters: Feminist social scientist famous for pummelling Sargon of Akkad when they debated. Does discussion livestreams addressing events and arguments of the anti-feminist 'Skeptic' community.
Recommended video: Reasonable Questions For Anti-SJWS and Formal Debate: Sargon of Akkad vs Kristi Winters

Maria the Witch: Covers feminist and LGBT topics. Similarly to Contra (whom she has recently done a video criticising) Maria often rebuts anti-SJW points against socially progressive ideals, having done videos addressing fat shaming, the placement of asexuality on the LGBT spectrum, and the commodification of female beauty.
Recommended video: Roaming Millennial: Hates Women. Hates Facts.

Messy Elliott: Has done rebuttals to Dave Rubin and InfoWars as well as a video defending non-binary gender from the uneducated criticism of major YouTubers (see below).
Recommended video: YouTubers Don't Understand: Non-Binary People | Messy Elliott

Mexie: Creates very polished socialist critiques and explorations of economic topics
Recommended video: Why People Who Need Redistribution Hate It: The Free Market & You

Mia Mulder: Self-proclaimed ‘angry trans woman’. Addresses political topics such as the Syria conflict, debating with white supremacists and the relationship of left-wing ideology with trans women in an entertaining way.
Recommended video: Syria: Many Of These Options Are Bad

Never Speak In Absolutes: Creates videos that draw on a knowledge of philosophy to critique members of the Intellectual Dark Web like Jordan Peterson and Sam Harris, as well as addressing other big issues like peak oil. Occasionally livestreams with Douglas Lain of Zero Books.
Recommended video: What Jordan Peterson Gets Wrong About Marx, Postmodernism and The Left.

NonCompete: The channel's description sums it up best, "Non-Compete is a leftist blog and video series dedicates to the principles of intersectionalist liberation, anarchism, communism, and puppet shows." Does videos similar to the style of Peter Coffin addressing specific leftist issues alongside a podcast with other leftists mentioned on this list like AngieSpeaks and RadicalReviewer.
Recommended video: The Red Pill is a CULT

PoliDice: Creates ‘debunking’ videos similar to the Potholer54 format José uses, and addressing similar topics. He’s done videos responding to Matt Christiansen, Steven Crowder, Ben Shapiro and PragerU.
Recommended video: Ten Horrible Ben Shapiro Arguments Debunked

Radical Reviewer: Previously focused on reviewing leftist books and other media, but as of about a day ago has branched out into response videos to right-wing lunatics.
Recommended video: Stefan Molyneux Doesn't Understand Anarchism

Rational Disconnect: Creates very Hbomberguy-esque videos responding to shitty arguments and videos from the skeptic community and alt-right. Like Hbomb he talks to the camera and includes performative comedy bits.
Recommended video: South Africa & The Far Right | PART 1 (placed in limited state by YouTube because the alt-right reported it for the clips from other people he includes who themselves were not flagged)

KnowingBetter: Debunking channel featuring videos exposing Gandhi, defending Christopher Columbus, and going after the likes of Winston Churchill. “Now you know better”
Recommended Video: Going After Gandhi: A Perverted Purity
Sarcasmitron: Another ‘debunker’ in the Potholer format. Has responded to Paul Joseph Watson, Ben Shapiro, No Bullshit and Stefan Molyneux in between video game and politics related shitposts.
Recommended video: The Truth About Paul Joseph Watson (For Real)
Thom Avella: Similar to hbomberguy's style but more vlog-based. Rebuts right-wing videos but also has a series called 'Buzzwords from the Right' where he specifically debunks misused terms and slurs used by that side like to chastise us.
Recommended video: What "Questions for SJWs" Taught Me About YouTube Antifeminism

Thought Slime: Anarchist who explains the tenents of his ideology and occasionally responds to right-wing dipshits.
Recommended video: We don't talk about She-Ra (sorry to have two She-Ra related videos in a row, but this truly is my favourite thing this guy’s done)
Xexizy: Marxist who both promotes socialist ideology and critiques those who misrepresent and slander it such as PragerU, Ben Shapiro and Jordan Peterson.
Recommended video: Different Kinds of Marxism Explained
Bat’ko The Manarchist: Bat’ko is a leftist prominent on leftypol. He makes hilarious and clever songs about IDPOL and Stalin using classic Russian choir songs
Recommended Video: Best Of Leftypol Choir
[Nyx:](www.youtube.com/watch?v=sd_YNMEZndA) She covers movies/films, often utilizes a leftist frame, and sometimes dives into topics related to being trans.
azureScapegoat: Marxist who promotes socialist ideology; one of the most prominent features of this channel is an explainer series of videos on Cuba’s economic and political system. Noteworthy also for a video where he carefully clarifies the distinctions between socialism, communism, and modern communism.
Recommended video: How Democracy Works In Cuba

YUGOPNIK: Very new anti-capitalist channel. Critiques capitalist arguments ('Capitalist Philanthropy and Charity, why it doesn't work'), defends criticism of the left (Re: PragerUniversity on LEFTISTS and TOLERANCE) and promotes a Marxist praxis through everyday needs (see below).
Recommended video: Why Gamers Should be against Capitalism

Flea Market Socialist: Creates long and short videos on how to survive capitalism, make propaganda fun, subvert the system, and gives us that pure pure crystalline ideology we so desperately desire; straight to the jugular.
Recommended Video:Surviving Capitalism
ProSocialism: Small Trotskyist channel with videos on the bolsheviks, Lenin, and the Russian Revolution.
Recommended Video: The Russian Revolution Of 1905
Aphreditto:A leftist channel devoted to anarchist and anti-capitalist alternative education that pairs EDM with lectures and audiobooks by historical and contemporary thinkers.
[Recommended Video:]Murray Bookchin (1975) "The New Harmony" - Liquid Drum & Bass Mix
Anarchopac:: A philosophy channel that discusses Anarchism, Feminism, and Marxism.
Recommended Video: Ben Shapiro doesn’t understand intersectionality
- Media essayists and critics:

Big Joel: Does video essays on film, TV and video games with a very political slant. Analysing the Christian propaganda of the God’s Not Dead series, the preachy style of 1950s propaganda shorts, and what he believed to be the shallow politics of Black Mirror (as well as other less political analyses of movies like The Room and Disney films). He has recently branched out into much more overtly political content, creating videos which refuted arguments in Cassie Jaye’s men’s rights film ‘The Red Pill’ and the videos of Prager University.
Recommended video: The Red Pill: The Strange Art of Men's Rights Activism (Part 1)
donoteat01: Brought to my attention through comments. A fascinating channel using the game Cities: Skylines to illustrate the socioeconomic impacts the urban planning of cities can have on people's lives, both through the development in cities in history and in their redevelopment today. If you're interested in class analysis this series will be perfect for you.
Recommended video: Cities: Skylines | Power, Politics, & Planning: Episode 3: Gentrification

Folding Ideas: While not too overtly political, a leftist sense of justice and morality is pervasive in all Dan Olson’s work on this channel. He creates very lengthy analyses of movies and cultural events like last year’s weird YouTube kids video algorithm. Perhaps his most politically potent work though is the video I’ll link down below.
Recommended video: Triumph of the Will and the Cinematic Language of Propaganda

Kyle Kallgren: Film critic specialising in art cinema, but always from a socially left-wing perspective. While this political aspect is clear in all his reviews, often he does do videos exploring politics a lot more overtly such as below.
Recommended video: From Caligari to Hitler: Imagining the Tyrant - Between the Lines
Lindsay Ellis: Like Olson and Kallgren, Ellis started back in the day on That Guy With The Glasses, but has since transcended that prison into a phenomenal film critic. She uses dry humour and widely recognisable pop culture (her favourite subjects being Disney and Transformers) to look at intersecting social and political trends. While she’s often spoken from a feminist perspective, her recent work has begun delving into Marxist analysis in a way she’s very accessibly explained to the wide audience who watch her.
Recommended video: Marxism! | The Whole Plate Episode 9
Jack Saint / LackingSaint: Formerly did animations, now does video essays with political themes like in the link below. Also interesting is his parody of anti-SJW film reviews 'Rational Big Boy DEMOLISHES SJW Propaganda: 12 Angry Men'.
Recommended video: Sky High: Disney's Fascist Eugenics Movie
Pop Culture Detective: Despite the current cultural backlash to social justice, this guy has somehow gotten away with making video essay after video essay with millions of views criticising the portrayal of toxic masculinity in film and television, while celebrating the non-normative gender archetypes in media like Steven Universe.
Recommended video: The Adorkable Misogyny of The Big Bang Theory
Renegade Cut: Another long-form video essayist, but has a particular emphasis on analysing social justice in film. His work includes critical readings of the white privilege themes of ‘Get Out’, the perhaps accidental Ayn Randian/Objectivist themes of ‘The Incredibles’, and as seen below, the contentious approach to racism of ‘Three BillBoards Outside Ebbing, Missouri’.
Recommended video: How (Not) to Discuss Racism in Film - Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri | Renegade Cut

Step Back History: A history channel exploring important events from a progressive perspective. Has done videos addressing topics the right tends to obscure or ignore the truth of like, the pre-Columbian Americans (see below), 20th century communism, the rise of ISIS, anarchism during the Spanish Civil War and many others.
Recommended video: The Truth About Native Americans before Europeans Arrived
PODCASTS (Find On Podcast App)
Chapo Trap House: Leftist comedy podcast featuring interviews with a wide variety of writers and other prominent leftist figures. Along with film reviews, they also read and make fun of right wing and liberal media figures. They are very popular and do tours. Look up their clips on YouTube and obviously check this one out.
The Michael Brooks Show: Michael Brooks of the majority report’s show which features guests, analysis of politics and culture from a socialist perspective. Entertaining, funny, and overall wonderful podcast.
Best Of The Left: Aggregation of clips from a variety of mostly progressive and socialist radio and other leftist sources covering one important topic each episode.
The Majority Report: Mentioned in the youtube list, this is the actual podcast that the youtube clips come from. I listen every day. Simply excellent. This one I consider a must listen.
The Other Washington: Policy analysis from a progressive perspective. Noteworthy for analysis of minimum wage arguments.
Antifada: Jamie Peck of the Majority Reports podcast. Socialist with interviews and discussion of a variety of intriguing subject matter.
Jacobin Radio: Podcast of Jacobin Magazine -- analysis and discussion of issues from a socialist perspective
Current Affairs: Mentioned in the youtube list; the podcast features unique discussion of a variety of relevant policy and other topics from the magazine editors relevant to the socialist left
News From Nowhere: Corey Pein’s (Live, Work Work Work Die Author) unique podcast from a socialist perspective.
The Breunigs: Matt And Elizabeth Breunig of the Peoples Policy Project carefully and holistically analyze and discuss a diverse range of economic and policy issues.
This Is Hell!: Socialist analysis and interviews on a wide variety of topics relevant to the socialist left.
Zero Books: Mentioned in the youtube list; this is the podcast.
Dissent Magazine: Podcast of the Magazine
Citations Needed: Carefully policy and discussion of a variety of issues from a socialist perspective.
Intercepted: podcast of intercept magazine hosted by the brilliant and highly well regarded Jeremy Scahill, author of Blackwater and dirty wars.
Pod Damn America: the anti liberal pod save America. Features interviews with dsa members, organizers and other leftist activists and workers.
Vegan Vanguard (Mexie) Mexies youtube channel is charming, with well researched leftist subject matter and effective, well communicated presentation. Her podcast follows this trend.
Dead Pundits Society: severely underrated podcast featuring interviews with leftists as diverse and important as Adolph reed jr (the anti Tahnahisi Coates (materialist over idealist analysis), economics, unions, and a socialist foreign policy.
Supreme Leap Forward, Mic Dicta, (Socialist legal analysis)
Revolutionary Left Radio: Great pod from an ML on a variety of topics with lots of guests; did a great cross-over with The Antifada which would serve as a great introduction if you already listen to them
Media Roots: hosted by Abby Martin and her brother. This is Media Roots self described website description: "Media Roots is a citizen journalism project that reports the news from outside of party lines while providing a collaborative forum for conscious citizens, artists and activists to unite."
The Guillotine: hosted by Brett from Rev Left Radio and Dr. Bones, it is a self-described "podcast covering global current events from a revolutionary communist and anarchist perspective."
Street Fight: based out of Ohio, Street Fight Radio, or Street Fight is an American politics and humor radio show and podcast founded in June 2011 and hosted by Brett Payne and Bryan Quinby with anarchist leanings. Gritty and down to earth
Congressional Dish: podcast which is basically one woman going on a deep dive on recently passed bills, Senate hearings, that kind of thing. Lots of good episodes about US imperialism. Very detail focussed.
Cumtown: baconshark316: “not like really leftist but they're good friends with Chapo and guest on each other podcast before. Cumtown is comedy but their politics are pretty left. They just don't talk politics as much as Chapo.” very “dirtbag left”
Ashes, Ashes: David Torcivia and Daniel Forkner discuss systemic issues, cracks in civilization, collapse of the environment, and the end of the world."
Criminal (In)justice: as you can guess from the name, this podcast focuses on injustice in the criminal justice system... a lot of the critiques are quite leftist.
Your Kickstarter Sucks: a unique podcast with a humorous leftist analysis of a wide range of topics as diverse as gun violence apps, bus people, and cultural topics. I’ve heard it’s funny, still gotta get around to it
Season of the Bitch: Very well-informed feminist/Marxist show
Economic Update.: The podcast version of Richard Wolff's weekly show found on Democracy @ Work's YT channel
The Dig: Podcast from Jacobin Magazine
Deconstructed: Another pod from The Intercept
Eyes Left: Anti-war pod from two lefty army vets
The Bernie Sanders Show: Bernie will occasionally drop a half-hour commentary on big headlines
Working Class History: Exactly what it says on the box
Even More News: From the "Some More News" YT channel team
Socialist Rifle Association: A leftist podcast commenting on recent news, with focus on guns and gun laws, commenting on a variety of topics including new legislation, minorities and police. Also they regularly bash Musk, with is always fun. And they are official podcast of SRA, but that's obvious.
The Magnificast: A Christian, Marxist podcast
Chuck Boonta Vista Socialist Club:”It's the Australian rip off of Chapo Trap House”
Neighbor Science: Post-Scarcity Anarchism authors and profit sector business executives Pieter de Beer and Ryan Salisbury focused on political economy, ecology, and billionaires
Radio War Nerd: Excellent leftist foreign policy analysis
Novara Media: Aaron Bastani and Ash Sankar (of “I’m literally a communist”) have an excellent podcast AND YouTube channel featuring videos on subjects as diverse as islamophobia/Sam Harris, Homo-Nationalism and British Politics. Highly recommended
Media democracy pod: like the uk version of citations needed. very good analysis of the media by tom mills & dan hind, who have both written books on the subject for verso. also putting forward pretty concrete plans to democratise the media over here.
Discourse Collective:: leftist podcast analyzing culture and current events from a left perspective with various guests from the left activist and media sphere, as well as an ongoing reading series of of the works of important leftist authors (Prohoun, Kropotkin, Bakunin, etc).
The Black Podcast:
Red Scare: socialist feminist takes on current events and patriarchal norms, with film analysis as well
Swampside chats: the topics can be pretty niche ("here's this left-wing party that split in 1976," "here's this ultra-reactionary who wrote a manifesto") but it pulls off a combination of entertaining and intellectually serious that's p rare IME.
Behind the News: more current-events-driven and less entertaining, but is still probably one of the best Serious Interview shows out there.
No Cartridge Audio: leftist critiques of video games through a literary lens. They hosted the Texas-Christman Video Game Debate.
Struggle Session: reviews a lot of nerd/pop culture media, and often features very insightful views into the world of entertainment industry labor issues. One of their hosts, Leslie Lee, has been on Chapo.
District Sentinel: a podcast co-op (based in DC so you don’t have to be) on daily news, haikus, and analysis from the left.
Trillbilly Workers Party :Leftist podcast based in coal country, USA. Mostly a lot of local stuff about the small town they live in, but they have some good takes, and they need the exposure.
BitchFace Podcast:CRITIQUES OF POWER + WE GOT JOKES"
Minion Dead Cult: “They talk about news stories through the lens of insane right wing Facebook comments. It's a fun time.”
Delete Your Account - Analysis on current issues, e.g.healthcare, gaming industry unionization, evil landlords
Scumbag - Chapo's Felix and some guy that works in PR talk about internet weirdos (no longer active, but has a few good eps)
The Dig- another dead podcast - it's all a bit about Carl Diggler - a dril/journalist character played by Felix, and Virgil Texas as his millenial sidekick
Left Out:: podcast by Paul Sliker, Michael Palmieri, and Dante Dallavalle with in-depth conversations with leftist economists/organizers/thinkers.
Left Anchor: new podcast started in fall 2018 from Ryan Cooper & Alexi the Greek. Discussions between the hosts looking at historical leftist thinkers and applying to current events.
SWOTI (Someone's Wrong on the Internet): Hosted by Briahna Gray Joy and Joe Kunhilee, two leftist millennial POC. Entertaining and upbeat show that ranges from pop-culture to current events to dunking on centrist libs.
submitted by bshawwwwwww to BreadTube [link] [comments]

Results of the October 2018 State of the Game Survey!

Hi all,

It’s time for the results!

Thank you to everyone who participated once again, I hope you enjoyed it! If you responded to the survey or find these results valuable, upvotes to increase the visibility are much appreciated. I don’t want anyone who took the time to respond to miss seeing the results!

As always, neither myself nor this survey are associated with Intelligent Systems or Nintendo in any way. Please direct feedback about the game itself to the official channels.

Now let’s get into it! The post itself now contains more results in text format rather than graphical format in order to reduce the time it takes to process and compile these results. As such, the typical album of results would be very incomplete, so I’ve opted to remove it. Thank you for understanding!
 
Previous Survey Results:
State of the Game Surveys’ Analysis – Trend over Time and Predictions for the Future
Hero Catalog and Hero Rarity Survey III
July State of the Game Survey

~ Demographics ~

67.5% began playing FE:H in February 2017, with 9.3% more joining between March and May. 2.6% of respondents joined since June 2018. Full results here: [Graph].

31.9% report being F2P, while 14.5% have spent less than $20, 17.1% spent between $21 - $100 and 9.4% have spent over $1000 (up 0.4% from last survey). Full results here: [Graph].

The average age is 22 years old. Full results here: [Graph]. Remember that these results are influenced by the subreddit’s demographics and are not representative of the larger player population.

80.2% of respondents are male, 15.7% female, and 1.9% non-binary. Remember that these results are influenced by the subreddit’s demographics and are not representative of the larger player population.

41.3% play FE:H between 30-60 minutes per day, with 10.6% playing less than 30 minutes per day, and 30.5% play between 1-2 hours per day. 9.3% play for 2-3 hours, and 4.8% play for 3+ hours per day.

~ Summoning ~

Arrival of the Brave is the most summoned-from banner since the previous survey, with 87.0% of respondents reporting that they have used orbs on it at least once. Legendary Heroes: Tiki is the runner-up at 69.3%, followed by Festival in Hoshido at 64.1%. Full results here: [Graph].

Arrival of the Brave is the most common orb-draining banner since the previous survey, with 38.6% of respondents reporting that they used the most orbs on it. Runner-up is Festival in Hoshido at 12.3%, followed by Legendary Heroes: Tiki at 12.1%. Full results here: [Graph].

Arrival of the Brave is the most common favorite banner since the previous survey, with 30.1% of respondents reporting it as their favorite. Runner-up is Generals of Muspell at 16.0%, followed by Doorway to Destiny at 11.0%. Full results here: [Graph].

Arrival of the Brave was the banner that the most respondents spent money on, with 14.8% buying orbs specifically to summon on it. Legendary Heroes: Tiki is the runner-up at 11.5%, followed by Generals of Muspell at 9.0%. Full results here: [Graph].

9.0% pulled for either Helbindi or Laegjarn specifically for their Duel skills that boost Arena BST, compared to 90.1% who did not.

Veronica was the most common choice for the free Arrival of the Brave hero at 45.4%. Next was Hector at 19.6%, Celica at 14.1%, and Ephraim at 13.4%.

If they had only been able to choose one Arrival of the Brave hero to get for free, with no chance of summoning for the others, 60.3% would have chosen Veronica. 15.2% would choose Hector, 10.1% would choose Ephraim, and 8.1% would choose Celica.

~ Grand / Bound / Legendary Hero Battles ~

Completion Rates on Infernal:
  • (81.1%) GHB Jamke
  • (80.7%) BHB Micaiah & Sothe
  • (77.9%) LHB Hector
  • (75.1%) LHB Lucina
  • (75.1%) LHB Marth
  • (74.3%) GHB Garon
  • (66.6%) LHB Tiki

Average Difficulty Ratings on Infernal:
  • (4.30) LHB Tiki
  • (3.86) LHB Marth
  • (3.69) LHB Lucina
  • (3.57) LHB Hector
  • (3.12) GHB Garon
  • (2.76) BHB Micaiah & Sothe
  • (2.33) GHB Jamke
[Graph Part 1], [Graph Part 2]

LHB Abyssal Completion Rates:
  • (82.3%) F!Robin (Fallen)
  • (78.4%) Marth
  • (67.3%) Hector
  • (63.5%) Tiki

2.81 is the average rating on the Abyssal difficulty rewards (golden accessories). 26.3% rated the rewards at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

If given the choice, 51.7% would make Abyssal LHBs grant 5 orbs for completing them, while 35.9% would not.

51.6% used a guide to help clear an Abyssal LHB, compared to 45.7% who did not.

~ Tactics Drills ~

2.98 is the average Enjoyment rating for the Tactics Drills game mode (down 0.50 from the last survey). 34.7% rated their enjoyment at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

3.80 is the average Difficulty rating for the Tactics Drills game mode (down 0.32 from the last survey). 69.1% rated the difficulty at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

37.4% have cleared every available Tactics Drills challenge, compared to 61.8% who have not.

32.6% report that they most often find Tactics Drills solutions independently, while 20.2% most often use a guide, and 43.5% do both with about equal frequency.

31.3% report learning something new about skills or tactics from playing Tactics Drills, while 60.2% do not.

9.3% say that using a hero in Tactics Drills influenced their decision to summon for them (up 2.6% from the last survey), while 86.6% do not.

~ Forging Bonds ~

3.09 is the average Enjoyment rating for the Forging Bonds game mode (up 0.21 from the last survey). 40.8% rated their enjoyment at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

1.32 is the average Difficulty rating for the Forging Bonds game mode (same as the last survey). 1.4% rated the difficulty at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

The following are average ratings for the following aspects of the Forging Bonds game mode:
  • (3.96) Support conversations
  • (2.84) Stamina cost
  • (2.57) Gameplay
  • (3.33) Use of accessories
  • (3.44) Rewards
  • (2.45) Scoring (Bonus Hours, RNG)

[Graphs Part 1] [Graphs Part 2]

14.9% say that Forging Bonds has influenced their decision to summon for characters featured in the event (up 5% from the last survey), while 83.7% do not.

~ Arena Changes ~

2.76 is the average rating for how respondents feel about the addition of a 21st Tier. 19.1% rated at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

2.11 is the average rating for how respondents feel about the addition of bonus points for Bonus Unit kills. 12.1% rated at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

2.12 is the average rating for how respondents feel about the addition of A Skills that increase BST. 9.3% rated at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

85.1% have never reached the Great Summoner Tier (21). Of those who have,
  • 6.5% reached it once
  • 1.9% reached it twice
  • 3.1% reached it three times
  • 2.3% reached it four times
  • 1.2% reached it more than five times

For Bonus Unit kills per Arena match on average:
  • 5.4% get zero
  • 16.1% get one
  • 36.0% get two
  • 25.2% get three
  • 8.6% get four

7.8% use one of the Duel skills that boost BST for Arena, while 91.0% do not.

~ Blessed Gardens ~

2.78 is the average rating for how respondents feel about the addition of the Grounds in Blessed Gardens, which require two teams to clear. 24.8% rated at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

44.7% have completed all Blessed Gardens/Grounds maps, while 55.2% have not.

2.69 is the average Enjoyment rating for the Blessed Grounds maps. 22.9% rated their enjoyment at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

3.42 is the average Difficulty rating for the Blessed Grounds maps. 50.0% rated the difficulty at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

~ Relay Defense ~

1.75 is the average Enjoyment rating for the Relay Defense game mode. 6.2% rated their enjoyment at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

4.16 is the average Difficulty rating for the Relay Defense game mode. 76.4% rated the difficulty at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

Relay Defense Completion Rates:
  • Level 1 – 82.4%
  • Level 2 – 73.3%
  • Level 3 – 69.1%
  • Level 4 – 59.9%
  • Level 5 – 46.9%
  • Level 6 – 31.6%
  • Level 7 – 22.9%
  • Level 8 – 18.1%

The following are average ratings for the following aspects of the Relay Defense game mode:
  • (2.70) Stamina cost
  • (2.25) Rewards
  • (2.16) Frequency of forced switches
  • (1.50) Enemy stat inflation
  • (2.41) Scoring system

[Graphs Part 1], [Graphs Part 2].

~ Barracks Management ~

94.1% have used the Combat Manuals feature, compared to 5.8% who have not.

50.3% have used the Skill Sets feature, compared to 48.2% who have not.

42.4% generally describe themselves as focusing on growing a larger army of heroes, while 29.2% focus on powering up a smaller team of heroes. 25.8% report that neither of those options if a good description of their approach.

~ Opinions ~

2.84 is the average rating of the amount of content in the game. 16.3% rated their feelings at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

2.67 is the average rating of the rate at which new content is being added to the game. 11.8% rated their feelings at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

49.4% believe we will eventually receive Combat Manual rewards of Non-Summonable Heroes, while 29.7% do not.

Votes on which OC Villain will be the next to become playable:
  • (41.4%) Bruno
  • (26.7%) Original Veronica
  • (11.2%) Loki
  • (2.3%) Surtr
  • 9.6% believe none of the above will become playable

15.4% think Beaststone units will be added by the end of 2018, 38.9% by the first half of 2019, 13.4% by the end of 2019, and 12.3% think they will never be added.

Votes on which other game modes should have Abyssal Difficulty added:
  • (44.5%) GHBs (announced before the survey posted)
  • (42.1%) Story Maps
  • (38.9%) BHBs
  • (10.9%) Other
  • (10.4%) Blessed Gardens
  • 37.0% voted not to add Abyssal to any of the above

2.67 is the average rating of the ending to Book 2. 23.1% rated it at a 4/5 or above. [Graph].

Votes on their favorite OC character of Book 2:
  • (33.1%) Laegjarn
  • (32.8%) Helbindi
  • (8.4%) Hrid
  • (5.9%) Loki
  • (5.7%) Laevatainn
  • (3.5%) Gunnthra
  • (3.2%) Fjorm
  • (1.3%) Ylgr
  • (0.6%) Surtr

55.0% would prefer a mostly new set of characters for Book 3, while 20.9% would prefer continuing with the same characters.

~ Miscellaneous Topics ~

6.13 is the average highest merge level achieved on a 4* unit, up 0.31 from the last survey. The median is 8. A +10 merge on at least one 4* unit has been achieved by 43.1% of players, up 3.5% from the last survey [Graph].

7.60 is the average highest merge level achieved on a 5* unit, up (0.81) from the last survey. The median is 10. A +10 merge on at least one 5* unit has been achieved by 50.8% of players, up 12.0% from the last survey [Graph].

Percent who have performed each Askr Trio weapon refine:
  • (37.0%) Alfonse
  • (25.3%) Sharena
  • (15.1%) Anna

27.8% have farmed Hero Merit in Rival Domains, compared to 71.1% who have not.

63.5% don’t farm Hero Merit in an average week. 16.7% farm for less than 1 hour, 5.8% for 1-2 hours, and 2.9% over 10 hours. Full results here: [Graph].

~ Intelligent Systems Approval Ratings ~

The approval ratings are calculated by the proportion of Approve responses compared to the number of both Approve and Disapprove responses.

Percent who approve of the way Intelligent Systems is handling heroes and summoning in the game:
  • 70.2% - New Heroes (+19.5%)
  • 35.9% - Alternate Forms of Heroes (+16.0%)
  • 51.1% - Legendary Heroes (+0.0%)
  • 77.0% - Summoning Banners (+7.8%)

Percent who approve of the way Intelligent Systems is handling different Game Modes:
  • 40.4% - The Story (-9.6%)
  • 57.3% - Voting Gauntlets (+14.7%)
  • 8.6% - Arena (-8.6%)
  • 40.4% - Arena Assault (+8.3%)
  • 97.5% - Tempest Trials (+3.0%)
  • 94.7% - Grand Hero Battles (-1.6%)
  • 93.5% - Bound Hero Battles (+0.4%)
  • 72.8% - Legendary Hero Battles (-22.7%)
  • 45.6% - Blessed Gardens (-12.3%)
  • 43.8% - Tap Battle (+11.7%)
  • 70.8% - Grand Conquest (+18.4%)
  • 65.0% - Forging Bonds (+22.6%)
  • 75.9% - Tactics Drills (-13.8%)
  • 5.5% Relay Defense (---%)

59.8% 62.5% believe Intelligent Systems cares about its Free to Play userbase (down 2.7% from the last survey, down 23% since Spring), while 22.1% do not.

40.0% believe Intelligent Systems is treating its high-paying “whale” users fairly (down 2.3% from the last survey), while 24.6% do not.

47.4% approve of the way Intelligent Systems is handling Fire Emblem: Heroes as a whole (about the same as last survey, but down 34.0% from Spring), while 34.5% disapprove.

~ 5* Hero Data ~

100.9 is the average number of Unique Available 5* Heroes, up 11.2 from the last survey (excluding duplicates, merges, SI’d or sent home units). Median is 100.

Percentiles:
  • 80 is the cutoff for the 25th percentile
  • 100 for the 50th percentile
  • 120 for the 75th percentile
  • 144 for the 90th percentile
  • 161 for the 95th percentile

Other game data results:

207 is the average unique hero count (Catalog of Heroes number) at the time of this survey, up 15 heroes from the last survey. The median is 207.

~ Special Results: 5* Hero Data for Release Month F2Ps Only ~

101.9 is the average number of Available 5* Heroes for Release Month F2Ps only, up 15.1 from the last survey. Median is 104.

Percentiles:
  • 86 is the cutoff for the 25th percentile
  • 104 for the 50th percentile
  • 121 for the 75th percentile
  • 138 for the 90th percentile
  • 149 for the 95th percentile

~ Bonus Questions ~

Who is your Favorite Hero?
  • Adult Tiki is the winner, followed by Nino and Hector
  • Top ten here: [Graph].
  • Since last time, Soren experienced a significant rise into the top 10, while Cherche came out of literal nowhere into the #10 spot.

Who is your Most Wanted Hero?
  • Legendary Tiki is the winner, followed by Laegjarn and Legendary Marth.
  • Top ten here: [Graph].
  • Since last time, the top ten have almost been completely dominated by new heroes, but Hector and Alm still remain.

Most Wanted Fire Emblem character not currently in the game:
  • Kliff is the winner, followed by Cormag, Jill, and Tibarn.
  • Top Ten here: [Graph]

~ Feedback ~

As always, I received lots of great feedback, both in your survey responses and in the thread itself. A heartfelt thank you to all participants for your encouragements and criticisms - these surveys wouldn’t be where they are without your feedback. But it’s not all serious; feedback messages also included:

  • #PrayForKliff
  • Abyssal Tap Battle when?
  • “Did you know that the franchise is called Fire Emblem because the very first game in the series had a liar as an antagonist? And so the saying from Chrom, 'liar liar pants on fire' is actually where the fire part of the title comes from. Emblem comes from the fact that Emmeryn is blamed for the war by Gangrel. 'Blame Emm' became 'Emm-Blem' when the Ylisseans began mocking everything the Plegians said. Hence, 'Fire Emblem'.”
  • “I miss the silly bonus questions that the older surveys had.” – I’ll bring back one next time!
  • “If Roy isn't the next legendary fire hero, I'm making Azura my flair until he gets an alt.”
  • “NEVER FORGET THAT YOU CHOSE THIS PATH. YOU CHOSE SURVEYS AND POLLING. YOU CHOSE DATA. YOUR ANALYTICAL RESULTS ARE AT HAND...”
  • “If I end up quitting FEH, I won't be able to look forward to these each month anymore :(“
  • “The dancing man must be brought to justice, his recent actions have proven his leadership is not up to par any longer. I of course speak of this (https://i.imgur.com/4sfYKwo.png), what kind of mad man does such a thing. I recommend that that you strike him down as soon as possible.”
  • “Can I seriously just get Nils already though? Another dragon dancer, but this one is a boy AND is a bard! Like how cool is that? He plays music and shoots Hyperbeams! (maybe) Either way I want it! The longer it takes the stronger my one man Nils army will become though, so watch yourself in Arena MwaHaHaHa!”
  • “Is your in-game leader unit an Azura with Reading Glasses?” – Leader is currently Ophelia, but Azura does have the glasses of course.
  • “I'm curious as to what your most wanted unit is for this game, as well as the hero you would want to add in.” – Nephenee and Pent, respectively.
  • “What is your current in-game goal?” – To 5* all my unique heroes, which I actually achieved just recently! Still working on S-supports though…
  • And greetings from Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, Alaska, Colorado, DC, North Carolina, Plegia, Ram Village, the land of No Green Orbs, and Renais.

~ Song Parodies ~

As always, we have some fantastic song parodies here!

~ Closing Remarks ~

I’ve left out most graphs whose results can be conveyed succinctly in text format, in order to reduce the amount of time it takes to create this results post. As such, I’ve removed the “all graphs in one album” link as there would be a lot of results missing. Thank you for understanding!

If you missed out on responding to this survey when it was available, check out FEHSurveys. Many users express concerns over missing out on new surveys, so this subreddit serves as a place to organize FE:H-related surveys, make new releases more visible, and make it easier for users to see when surveys are active. If you like to participate in these, consider subscribing!

Thanks again to everyone who participated! I hope you find the results interesting, and if there’s anything else you think can be discovered from the data, let me know and I’ll do my best to oblige!
submitted by ShiningSolarSword to FireEmblemHeroes [link] [comments]

Correlative Variation of The Essential Amino Acids

Correlative Variation of The Essential Amino Acids
Lupine Publishers- Biostatistics and Biometrics Open Access Journal

https://preview.redd.it/1ng5vk4bb8d31.jpg?width=166&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1362c205d9db6111737eebd6028fe45c7f2233be

Abstract

On the example of the table of contents of eight essential amino acids in 22 products, the methodology of factor analysis and determination of the coefficient of correlation variation, calculated as the ratio of the sum of the correlation coefficients of stable laws and laws of binary relations between amino acids to the product of the number of amino acids as influencing variables and as dependent indicators. It is shown that this evaluation criterion depends on the composition of the products and the set of amino acids considered. Therefore, it is proposed to make a more complete table considering the set of objects, which considers the content of all 20 amino acids. The law of binary relations between amino acids is the sum of the exponential law and the biotechnical law of stress excitation in the product. By correlation coefficients of individual binary relations, the ratings of amino acids as influencing variables and as dependent indicators are performed. The correlation matrix of super strong bonds of essential amino acids with correlation coefficients of more than 0.99 is considered, in part of which the graphs are given. By the nature of behavior, it is proposed to classify the binary relationships between amino acids into positive, neutral and negative. Separately, the method of rating products. The equations and graphs of rank distributions of the content of essential amino acids in products are given. The rating of essential amino acids by dispersion of residues from the equations of binary relations and rank distributions is given.

Introduction

Under the expression correlative variation Charles Darwin understands that the whole organization is internally connected during growth and development, and when weak variations occur in one part and are cumulated by natural selection, the other parts are modified. Modifications in the structure recognized by taxonomists for a very important, can depend solely on the laws of variation and correlation [1]. For example, Phyto enosis [2] has at least three fundamental properties: first, the correlative variation in the values of parameters in time and space; second, the correlation depends on the genotypic properties of the plant species; third, the variation is due to phenotypic properties, as well as the cycles of solar activity [3], the rotation of the moon around the Earth and our planet around itself [4].
In accordance with the correlative variation of Charles Darwin, during the growth and development of the body, significant changes in the initial age will lead to changes in the structure and in the adult creature. Therefore, people, taking, and thereby enhancing some feature of, almost, probably, unintentionally modifying other parts of the body based on the mysterious laws of correlation [1]. Any non-investigative variation is insignificant for us. But the number and variety of hereditary deviations in the structure, both minor and very important in physiological terms, is infinite. All things are things, properties and relations [5], and in the bios relations control things and change their structures. The purpose of the article is to show the laws and regularities of the correlative variation of the content of eight essential amino acids in a set of 22 products.

The Concept of Correlative Variation

Variability [1] is usually associated with the living conditions that the species has been subjected to for several successive generations. In General, according to Darwin, there are two factors: the nature of the body (most important factor) and the properties of existing conditions [1]. Thus, we adopted the basic hypothesis that typing, and the classification has no effect on biotech based on mastery of life laws. Therefore, the variation (the set of deviations from the Darwin correlation) depends on the human factor, i.e. on the quality of measurements of soil properties and plants [4,6]. Soil according to V.V. Dokuchaev [7] is a living organism. Therefore, the principle of Darwin’s correlative variation should provide high adequacy of the revealed regularities [6]. Similarly, a priori we will consider experiments with essential amino acids [8] to measure their concentration in different types of products for humans and animals highly correlative.
From the concept of correlative variation of Charles Darwin, which was not understood by mathematicians and was not developed by biologists, it clearly follows that in other conditions of the habitat other combinations of values of factors may be stronger (Darwin calls factors hereditary deviations). Therefore, weak factor connections may be stronger for other combinations of the studied objects. As a result, there is a mathematical tool [9- 12] (identification method) for comparison of different natural and artificial (technical) objects [13]. The coefficient of correlative variation is considered for many factors of the physical object of study, that is, biological, chemical, technological, socio-economic, etc. It is equal to the ratio of the total sum of the correlation coefficients to the square of the number of factors for the complete table model (or to the product of the number of factors and). The type of the system under study does not affect this criterion, and the correlation variation depends entirely on the internal properties of the system under study. The coefficient of correlative variation is calculated by the formula
where
K – the coefficient of correlative variation of the set of factors or parameters characterizing the system under study,
ΣΣr – the total sum of the correlation coefficients for the rows and columns of the correlation matrix of the relationships between the factors,
N – number of factors to consider in the symmetric table,
Nx, Ny – the number of factors on the axes x and y .
Functional connectivity is a universal property of matter. For example, internal correlation variation is observed in the results of agrochemical analysis of soil samples [6], as all agrochemical parameters are measured on the same sample. Sampling sites do not affect the internal connectivity of biochemical and other reactions, that is, the same interactions between chemical elements and their compounds are observed on Earth. Such a community is called an ecosystem [2] or a biosphere superposition. The strongest correlative variation over 0.999 is observed in the set of genes [13- 15]. Slightly less, but more than 0.99, as will be shown in this article, such a variation exists in the group of essential amino acids.

Essential Amino Acids

These are essential amino acids for animals that cannot be synthesized in the body, in particular, human. Therefore, their intake from food is necessary (Table 1).

Rating of Influencing and Dependent Factors
To determine the coefficient of correlative variation of nine amino acids among 22 types of products it is necessary to conduct a factor analysis [9]. Due to the absence of a measured value of glycine content in one cell of Table 1 in the row Shiitaki mushrooms, factor analysis was first carried out [9, pp. 82-83, table. 3.30] nine factors and 21 products. The coefficient of correlative variation was equal to 0.9985. All binary 92– 9 = 72 relations are characterized by the exponential law. Table 2 shows the correlation matrix of binary relationships and the rating of eight factors excluding glycine for 22 products according to Table 1.

Table 2: Correlation matrix of factor analysis without glycine and rating of factors in identification by the exponential law.

The coefficient of correlative variation is 0.9727, which is significantly less than 0.9985. In the future, it turned out that in addition to the indicative law, the biotechnical law [4,6,9-15] of the stress excitation of amino acids depending on each other is additionally considered (Table 3). With the coefficient of correlative variation 0.9890 in the first place among the influencing variables was lysine, and among the indicators -phenylalanine. Thus, the correlative variation is very sensitive to the composition of amino acids and products. This fact in the future will reveal the rational compositions, structures and functions of amino acids in different systems under study.

The Law of the Relationship Between Amino Acids

It is expressed by an equation of the form
where y- amino acid content in the product as an indicator (g per 100 g of product),
x- amino acid content of the product as an influencing variable (g per 100 g of product),
a1..... a6 - the parameters of the model (2) taking the numerical values in the course of structural-parametric identification in the software environment CurveExpert-1.40. Formula (2) shows three types of stress-induced amino acids under the influence of each other: positive, neutral and negative. Neutral type appears only without shiitake mushrooms, that is, when the amino acid content changes from 0 to 2 (maximum 2.009 for beef). The maximum concentrations of nine amino acids without shiitaki mushrooms are in two products-beef and chicken meat. In the amino acid content range from 2 to 7 in Table 1 there are no types of products (except mushrooms). Therefore, it is necessary to add new products to the list and Table 1.
In the concentration range from 0 to 7, two types of behavior appear:

  1. positive behavior, with a positive sign in front of the second component of the formula (2), when with increasing content of the influencing amino acid, the content of the dependent amino acid increases according to the biotechnical law of stress excitation;
  2. negative behavior, with a negative sign, when the content of the dependent amino acid is inhibited from the action of the wagging amino acid. These two types provide optima for the interaction of essential amino acids.

Correlation Matrix

From Table 2, choose a binary relationship with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.99 (Table 4). The neutral behavior of amino acids receives only 15 binary bonds at the level of superstrong adequacy (or 100 15 / 72 = 20.83%). We will do the same with the data in Table 3. Table 5 shows a significant increase in the number of super strong links, 33% or 45.83%. The matrix remained completeeight rows and columns. However, the behavior of biological objects is characterized, in addition to the trend (2) vibrational adaptation [6,12,14,15]. To identify the wavelet signals from the amino acid behavior under mutual influence, it is necessary to significantly expand Table 1 also with interchangeable amino acids. Especially it is necessary to pay attention to the types of products that give a concentration of 2 to 7.

Binary Relation Graphs

The effect of each essential amino acid on the concentration of other amino acids is shown in four graphs, which are arranged in figures in descending correlation coefficient. Of the 72 graphs in the article shows a total of 32 graphics (Figures 1-8). They provide a visual representation of the variations of formula (2). The second component of the general model (2) shows a different level of adaptability (positive or negative) dependent on the influencing amino acid by the coefficient of adaptability.
On the charts, the positive behavior of essential amino acids is shown as a convex curve, and the negative behavior is shown as a concave curve. On the effect of histidine and methionine it is possible to estimate the minimum interval of the concentration of essential amino acids with neutral type. As can be seen from the graphs in Figure 3, the neutral behavior type is from 0 to 0.5. The convexity or concavity of the graph has a different length along the abscissa axis. It is obvious that the addition of the list from Table 1 with additional products having amino acid concentration in the range from 2 to 7, will allow to specify the parameters of the model (2) and add a wave function. However, in our opinion, the nature (design) (2) of the expansion of the list of products will not change. Graphs of the effect of lysine on other amino acids have a concave appearance, which relates them to the negative effect. At the same time, there is a steep rise of curves, more than five times after the concentration of lysine 2.5-2.8. Figure 7 shows the multidirectional effect of methionine on other amino acids along the different length of the concave or convex part. For example, the positive effect of phenylalanine on the change of isoleucine is observed in a short period of abscissa from 0.3 to 1.3. But the effect of phenylalanine on the change of leucine is observed throughout the axis of abscissa.

Parameters of a Two-Member Model

Model parameters (2) are given in Table 6 The positive form of the equation (2) is used in the recording. Then the negative type is easily determined by the negative sign before the model parameter a3. Then you can classify (Table 7) three types of behavior of essential amino acids (code: 1 – positive; 0 – neutral; -1 – negative). Apparently, for the most complete amino acid system, the total sum of codes will approach zero. As a variable on the positive effect in the first place – phenylalanine, and among the dependent indicators – lysine.

The Quality of the Source Data and Ratings of Products

A tabular model is a good-quality and relatively complete table of input data for statistical modeling by identification of stable laws and regularities. The quality factor is understood as the accuracy of the numbers, the primacy of the indicators (the factor analysis is not initially permitted secondary received, calculations, parameters), consistency of the description of the object of the studies consider many parameters. As a result, we get the distribution of places in descending order (Table 8).

Let’s check the initial data of Table 1 for the quality factor.
Any of the factors is the vector orientation and the two possible behaviors:

  1. better more on the vector better worse, the rank is given to the maximum, and the ranking is performed in descending order of the factor values;
  2. it is better to lower, so the rank is given to a minimum, and the ranking is performed by increasing the values of the factor.
From the hypothesis- the greater the content of any essential amino acid in any product, the better - the first option of a vector of behavior is accepted. We range each amino acid from Table 1 in Excel in the program RANK. The function =RANK (Е3; Е$3: Е$24;0) taken notation: Е – column identifier; Е3, Е$3 – the first row; E$24 – the last row of the Table 1; 0 1 – ranking in descending (0) or ascending (1). Three places in the ranking took products: mushrooms, beef and chicken. The rating in Table 8 is determined in places. The best theoretical first place is obtained if. Then it turns out that shiitake mushrooms in a variety of products according to the Table 1 is theoretically possible in the first place. For the second place the sum of ranks is 12. Next, we can take places for the explanatory variable, and the sum of ranks from Table 8 for the indicator. After identification of the general trend formula [13], we obtained (Figure 9) formula

The remnants after (3) show that wave function is possible in addition to the trend. Half amplitude reaches a share of 100 × 17.3524 / 85 = 20.41%. In the article we do not consider vibrational adaptation, as we need a table for all 20 amino acids. Each of the eight amino acids will be considered separately.

Ranking Distribution of Amino Acids

For statistical modeling, the ranks R must start from zero, with the rank distributions subject to the exponential law (growth or death). After the identification of the generalized trend [13] are obtained (Figure 10) formulas:
The sum of the squares of deviations from the equations of binary and unary (by ranks) relations between eight essential amino acids is written in the dispersion matrix (Table 9). As the influencing variable on the first place on minimum of the sum of dispersions there was isoleucine, and among dependent indicators – methionine. The average variance for all 82 = 64 cells of the matrix is D = 0.1231.

Conclusion

We have extended the principle of correlative variation not only to Charles Darwin organisms, but also to populations (in the article population of eight amino acids) and even to any biological, biotechnical and technical systems [13]. This principle allows to compare heterogeneous systems on one or some set of factors by functional connectivity. The coefficient of correlative variation, as a generalized criterion for comparing different sets of homogeneous biological objects, gets a very high value. For example, populations of genes [14,15] obtained the correlative coefficient of variation not less than 0.9999. In the example of this article, the level of adequacy for the set of eight essential amino acids is not less than 0.99. This makes it possible in the future to create the most complete table of contents and other indicators for a system of 20 amino acids and hundreds of objects, including products. Functional connectivity between essential amino acids was super strong and it is subject to a simple formula of two-term trend containing exponential and biotechnical laws. The absence of the second term determines the neutral type of behavior, and signs in the presence of the second member characterize the positive (+) or negative (-) type of behavior of amino acids in the studied system of products. To identify the effect of oscillatory adaptation of essential amino acids to each other in some sets of products need more accurate (with measurement error, less than an order of magnitude) data.
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Technical Analysis Binary Option Strategy - Trend Trading anyoption™

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